Basic Principles of Rolling Steel

For all kinds of rolling mills, whether roughing mill, hot rolling mill, or finishing mill, rolling is the simplest method of shaping steel. In this process, materials are being passed between two rolls, named work rolls. The rolls rotated at the same speed but in opposite direction; i.e. clockwise and counterclockwise. Roll gap, which is the distance between the rolls, being smaller than the thickness of the steel that is to pass between them.

In this case, the material is gripped and deformed by the rolls, with its cross-sectional area being reduced, e.g. an elongation of the rolled material leads to a reduction in thickness. The final products can be accessories and parts of roller box, mill rolls,  speed reducer, pinch roll and so on.

Rolls may deflect quite considerably by wide strips and high loads because of the imposed bending, therefore, rolled strip will be inconsistent with the required flatness. Considering this factor, smaller diameter rolls can be used so that the roll separating forces will be smaller.

The key characteristics of rolling are deformation velocity and directional changes of friction forces acting on the rolls. These changes take place within the deformation zone.

Since the material thickness is reduced from h1 to h2, the exit speed v2 must be correspondingly higher than the entry velocity v1. The peripheral velocity of the work rolls will have some valve between v1 and v2, which means that the roll surface at the entrance of the strip moves faster than the material and slower than the material at the exit.

The contents above are exactly the principles of most rolling mills. With these principles applied in the production, different kind of steel products can be produced, including wire rod, re-bar, coil, flat.  

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