The furnace is a device that is used to heat the material in order to exchange their shape as like in shaping and forging or the properties of the material can be changed. These furnaces are mostly used for melting the metals that are used for casting.
The furnace can be termed as a type of oven.
It is an enclosed structure inside, which the material is heated to very high temperatures. It is a device that is designed to
perform the water or air heating and is circulated throughout a building in a heating system.
The design of the furnaces is in such a way to consume fuel and heat as less as possible in a given time that requires low
The amount of heat that is to be given is prior determined to the material. There exists a sufficiency in the liberation within the furnace to heat the required stock. A proper heat transfer from the gases to the surface of the heating stock takes place.
The temperature should be uniform within the stock. The heat loss from the furnace is minimized to the least possible. In the
furnace the product of the flue gases directly comes in contact with the provided stock.
Components of an industrial furnace:
In industrial furnaces, it serves the purpose of heating i.e. it serves as a reactor to provide heats to the reaction. The design of the furnaces varies, however, the basic features are most common among all of them.
The basic components of a furnace are:
Radiant section, Convection section,
Radiant coil, Burner, Soot blower,
Stack, Insulation, Foundations, Access doors
The fuel flows in the burner is burnt from an air blower. The furnaces can have more than one burner. The furnaces can be
arranged in cells with a particular set of tubes, or the burners can be flooring mount, on wall or roof mounted depending on
the design demand. The flame of the burner heats up the tube that in-turn heats up the fluid that is present inside.
The first part of the furnace i.e. radiant section or firebox, where the combustion takes place by the action of radiation of the tubes around the fire inside the chamber. The heated fluid heats up to the desired temperature level. The gas that is formed from the combustion is known as flue gas. After the firebox, the flue gases enter convection section where the heat is recovered before their vent into the atmosphere by convection. In industries commonly, secondary fluids are heated in these furnaces with special additives like anti-rust and with high heat transfer efficiency. Thus heated fluid is circulated in the whole plant where heat is needed instead of direct heating of the stock material in the product line. The material can be volatile or
may be prone to cracking with the furnace temperature.