Rolling mill is a metalworking process which divided into two types: hot rolling and cold rolling. Here we will analyze the hot rolling cause we had discussed cold rolling before.
In many theory books, which called hot rolling is a metalworking process that occurs above the recrystallization temperature of the material. On the contrary, it means that below the recrystallization temperature of the metalworking process is called cold rolling.
But what is hot rolling besides of this word. Here we have the detail explanation about it. After the grains deform during processing, they recrystallize, which maintains an equiaxed microstructure and prevents the metal from work hardening. The starting material is usually large pieces of metal, like semi-finished casting products, such as slabs, blooms, and billets. If these products came from a continuous casting operation the products are usually fed directly into the rolling mills at the proper temperature. In smaller operations, the material starts at room temperature and must be heated. This is done in a gas- or oil-fired soaking pit for larger workpieces and for smaller workpieces induction heating is used. As the material is worked the temperature must be monitored to make sure it remains above the recrystallization temperature. To maintain a safety factor, finishing temperature is defined above the recrystallization temperature; this is usually 50 to 100 °C (90 to 180 °F) above the recrystallization temperature. If the temperature does drop below this temperature the material must be re-heated before more hot rolling. All of this above, just part of the hot rolling actually.
Hot rolled metals generally have little directionality in their mechanical properties and deformation induced residual stresses. However, in certain instances, non-metallic inclusions will impart some directionality and workpieces less than 20 mm (0.79 in) thick often have some directional properties. Also, non-uniformed cooling will induce a lot of residual stresses, which usually occurs in shapes that have a non-uniform cross-section, such as I-beams. While the finished product is of good quality, the surface is covered in mill scale, which is the forms at high temperatures. It is usually removed via pickling or the smooth clean surface; process, which reveals a smooth surface. Dimensional tolerances are usually 2 to 5% of the overall dimension.
Hot rolled mild steel seems to have a wider tolerance for amount of included carbon than cold rolled, making it a bit more problematic to use as a blacksmith. Also for similar metals, hot rolled seems to typically be less costly.
Hot rolling is used mainly to produce sheet metal, rebar, wire rod or other products. In a words, hot rolling is very popular used in the steel industry.